It’s a comic strip that I did yesterday. What do you think? I’ll be coloring it today.
A comic that I made based off of my niece.
I’m now more determined to do my best and improve! This is something we all need to hear and understand.
Brutal Tips On Breaking In To Comics
All right, recently, I lost two very dear friends of mine, writers who were intelligent, inspiring and endlessly supportive to me. One was Perry Moore, author of the lgbtq YA superhero novel HERO, and the other was Dwayne McDuffie, one of the…
I have creative writing right now and our assignment is to write a 50 page novel! This is what I have of it so far! I hope you guys like it!
I drew this for the “MAMA Scared Stiff” contest on deviantart. I’m very proud with how it came out.
I finally finished it! It’s 16 pages total. I hope you like it! It took me 5 months to complete it.
A blog that I made for the SCAD challege. I’m hoping that I’ll win a scholarship to scad, but I doubt I will. There are a lot better writers out there.
3rd/ AP Chemistry/
Nuclear Chemistry Reassessment Paper
Nuclear Chemistry may seem hard, confusing and dangerous at first, but it is actually very simple. The main reason why people tend to feel intimidated by nuclear chemistry is because of its name, “Nuclear.” The word ‘nuclear’ alone strikes up images of nuclear weapons, bombs exploding, mushroom shaped clouds, people dying and getting injured. All of these images mainly stem from the Second World War.
But nuclear chemistry does not contain just that information and science alone. It contains so much more. It contains atomic theories developed by amazing scientists, trials and errors of understanding, creating the Periodic Table that we all know and use today, the model of the atoms, and even the science of discovering how old something is with carbon dating – a skill almost all scientists use rather they are finding the age of a fossilized dinosaur or a skeleton of a murder victim.
In the early 1800s, a man named John Dalton came up with a few basic ideas about atoms. These ideas and/or theories are still used today. Dalton, an English chemist, believed there were many different kinds of atoms. He labeled them, Elements. These elements can combine to form compounds. For example, Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) are two elements. They can combine to create basic table salt (NaCl). Dalton also went on to theorize that these compounds will always contain the same ratios of elements. For example, water (H2O) will always possess 2 Hydrogen (H) atoms for every Oxygen (O) atom. Dalton stated as well that atoms are never created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.
Does that not sound familiar? These are the basic principles of science which we begin learning in elementary school. To think, before Dalton’s time, no one knew of these things. No one even considered them. They were just there, unnoticed, and unrecognized. While the Ancient Greeks did discover the atom, or at least come up with the theory that atoms existed. The main problem is that there was and still is not a piece of technology that can observe atoms.
Now in 1869, two scientists began working independently came up with the same idea. These two bright men were Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, and Lothar Meyer, a German chemist. They each proposed the idea of arranging the elements into early versions of a Periodic Table. A Periodic Table is a chart that shows all of the elements in order. Mendeleev and Meyer based their Periodic Table off of the known trends of the known elements. Their ideas eventually merged to create the Periodic Table that we use today.
In the late 1800s, a British physicist, Joseph John “J. J.” Thomason, used a cathode ray tube in his experiment. A cathode ray tube is a glass tube in which electrons are emitted by a heated, negatively charged plate called a cathode. Thus its name – cathode-ray tube. The electrons travel in a beam, much like a light saber from star wars, to a positively charged plate called an anode. These cathode ray tubes are used frequently. They are used for x-rays, televisions, phones, cat scans, and several other things. In fact, every television contains a cathode ray tube. They can not work without one. So thank the cathode ray tube for color television. Thomason watched the deflection of charges in the cathode ray tube. During his observations, Thomason hypothesized that atoms contain both positive and negative charges. He named the negative charges, electrons. Thomason presumed the electrons were sprinkled throughout the positively charged atom like the chocolate chips in cookie. Thus, J. J. Thomason created the Plum Pudding Model of an atom due to his theory.
At around 1907 to 1909, another scientist was able to calculate the charge of an electron. This ingenious man was Robert Andrews Millikan, also spelled Milliken, got a cylindrical electric field. Millikan, an American physicist, obtained a spray bottle and filled it with oil. He sprayed a fine mist of oil into the electrical field. From how the oil drops levitated with in the electric field, Millikan was able to figure out what the charge of an electron was.
In the early 1900s as well, Ernest Rutherford, a New Zealand scientist, decided it would be a good idea to fire alpha particles at a piece of gold foil. He watched how the alpha particles scattered. Rutherford observed that 9,999 of 10,000 of the alpha particles went through the gold foil with no – to little – deflection. This led him to conclude that all of the positive charge in an atom was concentrated in the center of the atom. Rutherford also discovered that atoms and matter consist of mostly empty space. These finding eventually led to the theory that an atom has a positively charged nucleus. The nucleus of an atom contains most of the atoms mass. It was due to these wondrous breakthroughs that Ernest Rutherford has also been referred to as the Lord Rutherford of Nelson and the First Baron Rutherford of Nelson.
In around 1913, Danish scientist, Niels – also spelled Neils in some books – Henrik David Bohr began working on The Bohr Model of the atom. Bohr referenced the quantum theory and predicted that electrons orbit the nucleus at specific, fixed radii. This idea is extremely similar to how planets journey around the Sun. Bohr’s model of the atom only worked for atoms and ions with one electron, but it did not work for more complex atoms.
The Quantum Theory was invented by Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, a German physicist. His creation of the quantum theory won him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918. Planck discovered that electromagnetic energy is quantized. Mathematically, quantum is E = hv. The quantum theory basically states that energy changes do not happen smoothly but rather in really small and distinctive steps.
Current models of atoms look a little, if not a lot, different than Bohr’s model. The modern atomic models are simply just a circle, which represents the atom’s nucleus. Within the nucleus are protons and neutrons. Around the circle are elliptical lines. On these oval shaped lines are electrons of the atoms. Other current models of atoms are made in three-dimensional software. The softwares used could range from softwares such as 3D Max, Blender, etc.
An atom’s nucleus is held together by a nonelectrical, nongravitational forced called nuclear force. There are four basic forces that work on an atom’s nucleus. They are: Gravity, Electrical Force, Weak Nuclear Force, and Strong Nuclear Force. Strong and weak nuclear forces are what is responsible for keeping at atom together. Some elements are more stable than others. When a nucleus is unstable, it can try to increase its stability. An element can accomplish this by altering its number of neutrons and/or number of protons. This process is referred to as radioactive decay. All elements after atomic number 83, Bismuth are naturally radioactive. There are several different types of decay.
Alpha Decay, otherwise known as Alpha Emissions, is one of the types of radioactive decays. Alpha Emission is when a nucleus releases a particle that has the same structure as a helium molecule. A helium molecule contains two protons and two neutrons. Alpha particles are the least penetrating of the products of nuclear decay. Alpha Emissions look like this: and . During alpha decay, you subtract four from the element’s mass number. You also subtract two from the atomic number. An equation with Alpha Emission would look a lot like this:
Beta Emission is a form of radioactive decay as well. The beta particle is extremely similar to an electron. During beta decay, the nucleus changes a neutron into a proton and an electron. It also emits electron. When an element undergoes beta emission, its atomic mass remains the same. However, you add one to the element’s atomic number. Beta emission looks like this: . Beta Emission looks like the following:
Positron Emission is another form of radioactive decay that is very similar to Beta Emission. Positrons are like electrons with a positive charge. The nucleus changes a proton into a neutron in positron emission and a positron. Positron emission discharges a positron. When a nucleus endures positron emission, the mass number remains the same, just like beta emission. However, instead of adding one to the atomic number, you subtract one from the atomic number. The symbol for positron emission is . Formulas with Positron Emission look like accordingly:
Electron Capture is a form of radioactive decay too. During this form of radioactive decay the nucleus captures a low energy electron. It combines the electron with a proton to form a neutron. When an element goes through electron capture, the atomic mass remains the same. You will subtract one from the atomic number during electron capture. Electron capture looks like . Examples of a formula with electron capture are as follows:
Gamma Rays are also a form of radioactive decay. Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation. Gamma rays have no mass. They also do not have a charge. Gamma rays usually accompany other forms of nuclear decay. Gamma rays are the most penetrating of the nuclear decay products. The symbol for gamma rays looks like .
The reason elements experience radioactive decay is to achieve greater stability. It is possible for people to use the periodic table to predict the kind of decay that an isotope and/or element will undertake.
If an element’s mass number is greater than its atomic weight, the atom will attempt to gain protons. The isotope will also try to lose neutrons. So in cases like this where the atomic number is greater than the elements atomic weight, you should expect to see beta decay. An example of when an element’s mass number is greater than its atomic weight would be .
If an isotope’s atomic number is less than its atomic weight, the atom will endeavor to lose protons. The element will also attempt to gain neutrons. Therefore, if an element’s mass number is less than its atomic weight, you should expect to see the isotope to endure positron emission or electron capture. An example of when an element’s atomic number is less than its atomic weight would be .
Alpha Emission is mainly only observed in very large nuclei of elements. This usually occurs with elements whose atomic numbers of 60 or greater. Though some scientists say it is elements 83 and greater.
When a radioactive substance decays, it decays half at a time. We call this half-life. Half-life is the time it takes for a radioactive substance and/or chemical to decay. Most half-life problems can be solved by using a simple chart. So, when the radioactive element has had zero half-lives, it is 100% complete. When the chemical has undergone one half-life, it is only 50% there. At two half-lives, the substance is at 25%. The radioactive element is at 12.5% at three half-lives.
There are mathematical formulas scientists use in order to calculate radioactive decay, half-life, time, constant, etc. In these formulas, t½ represents half-life. t represents Time. Ln is the symbol for natural log. K refers to constant. A is final activity. A0 represents initial activity. Ln2 is also equal to .693. They are as follows:
t½ = Ln2/K
K(t) = (A0/A)Ln
A = (A0/Kt)Ln
A = (A0)(e-kt)
A = (A0/Kt)Ln
K = Ln2/t½
A = (A0)(e- (Ln2)(t/t½ )
t = (t½ / Ln2) * Ln (A/A0)
When neutrons and protons rendezvous to form a nucleus, the mass of the nucleus created is less than the sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons which make it. This difference in mass is called the mass defect. The mass bereaved along the activity is released in a configuration of energy. If we were to reverse the process is the same quantity of energy necessitated to decompose the nucleus back into neutrons and protons. This energy is called Binding Energy. Almost every has heard of Einstein’s famous equation, E = mc2. This formula, which we all hear of, shows the relationship between mass and energy. In E = mc2, E represents Energy in Joules. M signifies mass in kilograms. C epitomizes the speed of light, which is 3 x 108 miles per second. Because c2 is such an enormous number, any change what so ever in the mass consequences in very copious alteration in energy.
Where does the pain start? Where does it end? Where can I find rest? Where can I find peace again?
This is supposed to be my safe haven. My sanctuary. Where is heaven hiding? Is it really real? Or am I just living in some level of hell?
I wonder. What’s going through your minds? What makes you think that this is okay? Come on answer me! Come on open your voice!
Yes! I have no shame at all. There is nothing to my name. I want to break free. But I don’t know how. I want to fly. But I’m far too shy. I’m standing on a fault. But I don’t want to break open the vault.
Or do I? You all seem to be misbehaving. Acting like it’s all okay. It’s not. Life is hard. Life is cruel. Behave! Act right! Why are you acting this way? Why are you doing this to me?
I’m tired of being kicked down. I’m tired of being pushed around. I’m tired of all of this. If you’re going to say one thing. Stop being a hypocrite. I’m only a little kid. I’ve done nothing to you.
My pain is growing. My rage is showing. I’m not happy at all. I’m not. I feel as though I can no longer trust. Even if I must. I can no longer trust anyone at all. I stumble down these long halls. I know I am going to fall. I’ll just have to get back up again. But I don’t think I can take much more.
Not from you.
Where does the pain start? Where does the pain end? Where can I find rest? Where can I find peace again?
Afflicting my weak fragile heart. You’ve seem to have shattered it a little more. Breaking its small pieces even more. I’m not joking. Too much pain has shot through me.
I wonder. What’s going through your minds? What makes you think that this is okay? Come on answer me! Come on open your voice! Say something at least! Or do you wish to continue condemning yourself!
I’m supposed to trust you. I’m supposed to look up to you. I’m supposed to speak to you of all the other pains. But why can’t I? Why must you do these things? Change the vibes? Change the way I see the world? Change the way that I see you?
This is supposed to be my safe haven. My sanctuary. Where is heaven hiding? Is it really real? Or am I just living in some level of hell?
Come on! Say something for yourself! Defend yourself! I’m tired of lies! I’m tired of all of your bullshit! I’m stopping my heart right now. I have no choice. I can no longer afford to care for you! Anymore!
If you’re looking for sympathy, I have none to give for you. This is what happens when you double cross and hurt someone. We love you. We really do. We love you. But will you please, please stop this behavior. Do right by us. Do right by me. Do right by you.